No compiled comments are available to date. Here is a summary of studies related to this subject, gathered by Rawad Massoud.
- Cowie et al, 2012 (Respiratory Health before and after the Opening of a Road Traffic Tunnel: A Planned Evaluation)
There was no consistent evidence of improvement in respiratory health in residents living along the bypassed main road, despite a reduction in traffic from 90,000 to 45,000 vpd. Residents living near tunnel feeder roads reported more upper respiratory symptoms in the survey but not in the panel sub-cohort. Residents living around the tunnel ventilation stack reported more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and had lower spirometric volumes after the tunnel opened. Air pollutant levels measured near the stack did not increase over the study period.
- Crowie et al, 2012 (A randomised cross-over cohort study of exposure to emissions from a road tunnel ventilation stack).
There was no consistent evidence of adverse respiratory effects from short-term exposures downwind of the tunnel ventilation stack, except for dry nose symptoms. However, the findings of increased airway inflammation and symptoms in subjects after only 2 h exposure at the heavily trafficked location, are suggestive of detrimental effects of short-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution.
- Laumbach et al, 2011(Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution)
Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis.
- Bruge et al, 2007 (Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks)
Evidence of the health hazards of these pollutants arises from studies that assess proximity to highways, actual exposure to the pollutants, or both. Taken as a whole, the health studies show elevated risk for development of asthma and reduced lung function in children who live near major highways. Studies of particulate matter (PM) that show associations with cardiac and pulmonary mortality also appear to indicate increasing risk as smaller geographic areas are studied, suggesting localized sources that likely include major highways.
- Dadvand et al, 2014 (Residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight: the roles of air pollution, heat, noise, and road-adjacent trees).
Living within 200 m of major roads was associated with a 46% increase in term LBW risk; an interquartile range increase in heat exposure with an 18% increase; and third-trimester exposure to PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM10 with 24%, 25%, and 26% increases, respectively. Air pollution and heat exposures together explained about one-third of the association between residential proximity to major roads and term LBW.
- Bilenko et al, 2013 (Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children’s blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study).
Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth.
- Massoud et al, 2009.
Yearly averages of PM10 was 74.7±16.5 μg m−3 Grande Lycee Franco Libanais (GLFL), For PM2.5, yearly averages were 20.3±2.0 in GLFL. WHO levels are: 20 μg m−3 and 10 for PM2.5
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